oxide and zinc aluminum spinel. Ammonia (NH 3) is crucial for the industrial synthesis of fertilizers and pharmaceuticals so that ways to improve its production from molecular … The compressed gas is then pumped into the converter, where it flows over beds of iron catalysts kept around at least 450°C (840°F). • Ammonia synthesis catalyst: KM 111 KM 111, a magnetite-based catalyst, developed for lower beds of the ammonia converter possesses an This process produces an ammonia, NH 3 (g), yield of approximately 10-20%. Until 1990, when Kellog Advanced Ammonia Plant introduced carbon-supported ruthenium catalyst, iron catalyst was the only catalyst used in industrial ammonia synthesis [1, 2]. Ammonia decomposition Iron catalyst Cobalt catalyst 1 Introduction Catalysts for ammonia synthesis have been the study sub-ject for over 100 years now. Recently, scientists have reported ruthenium -- a transition metal -- as an efficient "catalyst" for ammonia synthesis, as it operates under milder conditions than traditional iron-based catalysts. Johnson Matthey supplies both un-reduced and pre-reduced ammonia synthesis catalysts, based on more than 80 years' operating experience with ICI, along with more than 100 years' operating experience with BASF and extensive experience of all other operating technologies. This is in accordance to Le Chatlier’s principle, which states that any change in concentration , temperature, volume, or partial pressure to a system in equilibrium will cause the equilibrium to shift in order to counteract the imposed change. The reaction listed above is reversible, so these catalysts push the reaction towards the production of ammonia. The speed of a chemical reaction may increase or decrease by the addition of a catalyst. This, combined with the use of the hot iron catalyst, means that a good yield of ammonia is produced constantly. (Source: Haldor Topsoe, 2016). Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive. The Haber synthesis was developed into an industrial process by Carl Bosch. In the production of ammonia, Iron is used as a catalyst. Nanoscale iron catalysts, designed for industrial chemical applications, have been validated in commercial ammonia-production reactors in China. a catalyst (a porous iron catalyst prepared by reducing magnetite, Fe 3 O 4). However, various Ammonia synthesis is the process by which ammonia is formed from nitrogen and hydrogen over a catalyst (usually iron). The iron-free formulation prevents formation of unwanted iron carbides that reduce the catalyst strength of conventional iron-based HTS catalysts. 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